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Ako crna boja ne reflektira svjetlost, kako to možemo vidjeti?

Ako crna boja ne reflektira svjetlost, kako to možemo vidjeti?



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Ako boja kakvom je percipiramo ovisi o valnim duljinama koje reflektira objekt, pri čemu bijela reflektira sve nijanse, a crna apsorbira sve, kako ćemo detektirati crni objekt?

Shvaćam da ne postoji savršena crna. Je li to fizička nesavršenost crnih površina koja vizualnom sustavu daje naznaku o njegovu zasjenjivanju?


Objekti se vizualno opažaju kad reflektiraju svjetlost. Crni predmet ne reflektira nikakvu svjetlost. Drugim riječima, fotoreceptori u retini ne reflektiraju fotone koji bi ih detektirali. Crni oblik na obojenoj podlozi izgleda crno jer se njegova svjetlina približava nuli u odnosu na okolinu.

Crna, kao i svaka druga percipirana nijansa, relativna je percepcija. Vizualni sustav, kao i svaki drugi osjetilni sustav, detektira fizičke podražaje na relativan način. Na primjer, pri jakom dnevnom svjetlu (fotopski uvjeti) blic fotoaparata mogao bi se pojaviti kao slab izvor svjetlosti. Isti bljesak gledan u mračnim (skoptopskim) uvjetima može se pojaviti kao zasljepljujući bljesak. Kad je vizualni sustav prilagođen svjetlu, potrebno mu je mnogo fotona da bi mogao reagirati na vizualni podražaj. Pod ovim uvjetom, objekti tamne boje mogu izgledaju crno, jednostavno zato što su pragovi fotoreceptora previsoki. Nasuprot tome, taj isti tamni objekt može se pojaviti kao siv pod skotopskim uvjetima kad je mrežnica mračno prilagođen (boje se ne percipiraju pod skotopskim uvjetima - imajte na umu da crno -bijele su ne boje, ali dvije krajnosti na percipiranoj sivoj ljestvici).

Važno je shvatiti da su boje percepcija i podložne su nesavršenostima neurofiziološke obrade. Na primjer, slijepi ljudi rijetko percipiraju svijet kao crn, unatoč činjenici da njihov vizualni sustav ne može otkriti fotone. Umjesto toga, svijet mogu percipirati kao sivkastu nijansu, često doživljavaju iluzorne spontane bljeskove svjetlosti (fosfeni) ili čak čitave vizualne scene (sindrom Charlesa Bonneta). Dakle, dok je a crni predmet je fizički definirano kao objekt koji ne emitira/ne reflektira fotone, to ne znači da odgovarajuće područje u neuronskom prikazu vidnog polja šuti. Možda naprotiv.


Ako crna boja ne reflektira svjetlost, kako to možemo vidjeti? - Psihologija

Različite valne duljine unutar vidljivog područja odgovorne su za različite boje koje vidimo. Kratica "ROYGBIV" pomaže nam da se sjetimo boja crvene, narančaste, žute, zelene, plave, indigo i ljubičaste. Imajte na umu da su obrnutim redoslijedom na donjoj slici. Ljubičasta je najenergičnija boja, a crvena najmanje.


Prema slici, ako bi netko obasjao svjetlo valne duljine 550 nm, izgledalo bi zeleno.

Ako nam je netko obasjao bijelo svjetlo, koju valnu duljinu ima? Bijela boja nije u našem vidljivom spektru jer se sastoji od svih valnih duljina svjetlosti. Dobar primjer je žarulja. Izgleda bijelo jer emitira barem neke od svih valnih duljina u vidljivom području. Ovakvi se objekti nazivaju radijatori s crnim tijelom.

Obojene tekućine ili otopine izgledaju obojene jer apsorbiraju dio svjetlosti koja ih obasjava. Epruveta na slici sadrži narančastu otopinu. Sunčevi spektri su bijela svjetlost. Kad sunčeva svjetlost sija kroz narančastu otopinu, apsorbiraju se ljubičaste, plave i zelene valne duljine. Ostale boje prolaze. Preneseno svjetlo je svjetlo koje vidimo i izgleda narančasto.


Obojeni predmeti izgledaju onako kako izgledaju zbog reflektiranog svjetla. Kad sunčeva svjetlost zasja na zelenom listu, apsorbiraju se ljubičaste, crvene i narančaste valne duljine. Reflektirane valne duljine izgledaju zeleno.

U svakom slučaju vidimo komplementarne boje upijajućim.

Gledajući spektar apsorpcije i komplementarne boje za klorofil trebali bismo moći predvidjeti da biljke izgledaju zeleno.

Crno -bijeli objekti samo su krajnosti obojenih objekata. Crni predmeti upijaju svu svjetlost koja im je obasjana. Nema reflektiranog svjetla pa vidimo crnu (odsutnost boje). Ako se cijelo svjetlo reflektira, vidimo sve valne duljine, što znači da vidimo bijelo svjetlo.


Značenje boje: Značenje boje Crna

Ovaj je post dio Blog serija u značenju boje, s detaljima o značenjima povezanim s bojama poput crvene, narančaste, žute, zelene, plave, ljubičaste, sive, crne, bijele, smeđe, ružičaste, tirkizne, zlatne, srebrne i bež boje.

Crno povezan je s moći, strahom, misterijom, snagom, autoritetom, elegancijom, formalnošću, smrću, zlom i agresijom, autoritetom, pobunom i sofisticiranošću. Crna je potrebna kako bi sve ostale boje imale dubinu i varijaciju nijanse.

Crna boja je nedostatak boje. Crna je tajanstvena boja koja se obično povezuje s nepoznatim ili negativnim. Crna boja predstavlja snagu, ozbiljnost, moć i autoritet. Crna je formalna, elegantna i prestižna boja. Autoritativna i moćna, crna boja može izazvati snažne emocije, a previše crne može biti neodoljivo.

U heraldici, crno simbol je tuge. Crna boja može biti ozbiljna, profesionalna i konvencionalna, ali crna također može predstavljati tajanstvenu, seksi i sofisticiranu. Crna je boja za vizualno mršavljenje odjeće, a poput ostalih tamnih boja, u dizajnu interijera, crna može učiniti da se soba smanjuje.

Boja crna utječe na um i tijelo pomažući stvoriti neupadljiv osjećaj, pojačavajući povjerenje u izgled, povećavajući osjećaj potencijala i mogućnosti ili proizvodeći osjećaj praznine, mraka ili tuge.

U zapadnim zemljama crno je boja žalosti, smrti i tuge. Crna boja često predstavlja emocije i akcije pobune kod tinejdžera i mladih. Crna boja može predstavljati i pozitivno i negativno. Nasuprot bijeloj, filmovi, knjige, tiskani mediji i televizija obično prikazuju dobrog u bijelom, a lošeg u crnom. U novije vrijeme dobar momak prikazan je crnom bojom kako bi stvorio misterij oko identiteta lika.

Druga značenja povezana s crnom bojom:

  • Fraza "Crna kravata" odnosi se na službeni događaj ili dress code.
  • Izreka "mrkli mrak" reference nema svjetla ili nema vidljivosti.
  • Uvjet "opak" opisuje zlu osobu.
  • A "crni pojas" je stručna razina u borilačkim vještinama.
  • Izraz "razotkriti" je iznijeti stvari na otvoreno.
  • Fraza "u crnom" odnosi se na to da imate novca ili profitirate i dobro poslujete.
  • A "Crna kutija" je dio opreme ili aparata koji se obično koristi u zrakoplovima.
  • A "Crno oko" je oštećenje oka, uključujući modrice i promjenu boje, ili oštećenje ugleda#8217.
  • A "Crna ovca" je izopćenik iz obitelji ili iz društva.
  • Izraz "ljudi u crnom" obratite se državnim agentima.
  • A "Crna lista" je popis ljudi ili organizacija koje treba bojkotirati, izbjegavati ili kažnjavati.
  • Uvjet "hulja" koristi se za označavanje negativca ili nitkova.
  • Riječ "ucjena" odnosi se na dobivanje nečega prijetnjom.
  • Riječ “Zamračenje” znači gubitak električne energije, gubitak vidljivosti, gašenje svjetla, gubitak svijesti ili čin brisanja ili brisanja nečega.
  • Fraza "crno tržište" odnosi se na ilegalnu trgovinu robom ili novcem.

Dodatne riječi koje predstavljaju različite nijanse, nijanse i vrijednosti crne boje: ebanovina, mlaz, tinta, lampa, ugljen, čađa, ugljen, gavran, ponoć, opsidijan, oniks, sable.


Boja osobnosti i karakterne osobine

Zagovornici psihologije boja kažu da možda ne pokazujete sve karakteristike, ali ćete vjerojatno pronaći neke sličnosti.

Evo općih značenja boja osobnosti, pa ćemo o svakoj od njih u budućnosti ići detaljnije.

Crvena boja osobnosti sugerira snažnu volju, ambiciju i energiju. Ovdje je opis crvenog tipa osobnosti.

Plava boja osobnosti sugerira sklonost postojanju fiksnog niza principa i želju za životom prema tim načelima. To je također miran tip ličnosti.


204 riječi koje opisuju boje i#8211 izvor za pisce

Pisci pri pisanju koriste pet osjetila. Sposobni smo vidjeti, namirisati, čuti, okusiti i dodirnuti upravo ono što doživljavaju likovi u priči.

Pisao sam o riječima koje opisuju ukus, dodir, zvuk, i miris u prethodnim postovima.

Jedan od najboljih načina za opisivanje onoga što vidimo je kroz boju, a u ovaj sam post uključio riječi koje opisuju boje.

Napomena: ‘colour ’ je britanski pravopis, a ‘color ’ američki pravopis.

Što je boja?

Collinsov rječnik kaže: ‘Boja nečega je izgled koji ima kao rezultat načina na koji reflektira svjetlost. ’

Vidljivi spektar boja kako ga vidimo sastoji se od sedam glavnih boja:

Ali možemo vidjeti samo tri od ovih vidljivih boja: crvenu, plavu, zelenu. Ove se tri boje miješaju u našem mozgu kako bi stvorile sve ostale boje koje vidimo.

Boja utječe na nas

Boja utječe na naše raspoloženje. Na primjer, plava je mirna, crvena je agresivna, ružičasta potiskuje ljutnju i tjeskobu, svijetložuta je boja koja najviše iritira zbog svoje pretjerane stimulacije na oku. Boje utječu i na potrošače.

Prema Sally Augustin u članku u Psychology Today, istraživanje je pokazalo "moći" pojedinih boja.

Ona piše o pet boja:

  1. “Zeleni: Vidjeti zelenu boju povezano je s kreativnijim razmišljanjem - pa su zelene dobre opcije za kućne urede, umjetničke studije itd.
  2. Crvena: Ljudi koji vide druge ispred crvene pozadine općenito smatraju da su te druge osobe privlačnije nego kad ih vide siluetirane u odnosu na druge boje, pa su crvene boje izvrsne za zid spavaće sobe. Imajući na umu crvenu površinu daje nam i nalet snage, pa su crvene boje dobar izbor za kućne teretane itd. Vidjeti crvenu boju ipak je povezano s oslabljenim analitičkim zaključivanjem, što je čini lošom opcijom za urede.
  3. Ljubičasta: Ljudi povezuju sivkastu ljubičastu sa sofisticiranošću, pa to može biti dobar izbor za mjesta na kojima pokušavate ostaviti "pravi" dojam.
  4. Žuta boja: Korištenje žute boje u kući može biti problematično. Mnogi ljudi ne vole boju, pa ako imate puno žutih soba u svom domu ili žuta ulazna vrata, možda će vam biti preporučeno da prefarbate kako biste dobili najbolju cijenu za svoj dom ako prodajete. Izuzetak: Mnogi ljudi koriste žutu boju u kuhinjama - bez negativnih posljedica na prodaju. Žuta se može prihvatiti u kuhinjama jer tople boje potiču naš apetit.
  5. Plava: Ljudi će vam vjerojatnije reći da im je plava omiljena boja od bilo koje druge nijanse. To ga čini sigurnim izborom. Vidjeti plavo također podsjeća na misli o pouzdanosti koje su uvijek dobre stvari. ”

Savjeti za pisanje

  1. Lik koji živi u šarenom domu vrlo se razlikuje od onog koji živi u monokromatskom domu. Upotreba boje može vam pomoći da pokažete tko su likovi.
  2. Daltonist može dodati zanimljiv zaokret priči.
  3. Lik s kromofobijom ima iracionalan strah od boja. To ih može spriječiti u obavljanju svakodnevnih aktivnosti i može utjecati na njihov život.
  4. Mračno, sivo okruženje dobro funkcionira na mjestu zločina. Postavka obojena sepijom radi za memoare. Živopisno okruženje dobro funkcionira za romantiku. Pomoću boja postavite raspoloženje za svoje knjige.

207 Riječi koje opisuju boje

Općenite riječi povezane s bojom

  1. u plamenu – jarko i puno svjetla ili boja
  2. pobuna [boje] – puno različitih svijetlih boja zajedno
  3. izbijeljeno – jako blijedo kemikalijama ili jakim sunčevim svjetlom
  4. sumorno i mračno
  5. mrljast – obezbojen, mrljast
  6. podebljano – vrlo svijetle, bistre ili jake boje i stoga se lako primjećuju
  7. drsko – veliko, svijetlo ili šareno na način koji nije privlačan
  8. svijetle – jake, ali ne tamne
  9. briljantno – živo, intenzivno
  10. chintzy – previše šaren i lošeg okusa
  11. čist – lagan i svjež
  12. hladne i#8211 boje, poput bijele, plave i sive koje vas tjeraju da razmišljate o hladnim stvarima
  13. označeno bojom i##8211 označeno različitim bojama kako bi se lakše vidjeli različite značajke ili uporabe
  14. šareni – ima svijetle boje ili puno različitih boja
  15. hladne – hladne boje, poput bijele i plave, daju ideju hladnoće umjesto topline. Boje s plavom ili zelenom u sebi nazivaju se hladne boje
  16. pjegavo – prekriveno ili formirajući područja svjetlije i tamnije boje ili svjetla i sjene
  17. tamne – jake i ne blijede boje
  18. duboko – tamno i jako
  19. nježan – ugodan i ne prejak
  20. obezbojen – promijenio boju i više ne izgleda novo, čisto ili zdravo
  21. prašnjav – koristi se za opisivanje boje koja nije svijetla jer ima nešto sive boje u sebi
  22. električni – svijetli, metalik
  23. brze & br. 8211 boje koje su brze neće postati blijeđe kada se odjeća pere
  24. svečano – svijetlo i šareno na način da pomislite na proslavu
  25. vatrene – vrlo svijetle boje, osobito jarko crvene, narančaste ili žute
  26. raskošan – jarkih boja ili ukrašen
  27. plamen – jarko obojen crvenom, narančastom ili žutom bojom
  28. fluorescentna – vrlo svijetla i čini se da reflektira svjetlost
  29. svježe – čiste boje
  30. gay – svijetle boje ili privlačne
  31. svjetlucavo – pjenušavo ili sjajno poput sjaja
  32. svjetlucavo – sjajno pjenušavo
  33. sjajne – užarene boje svijetle su i izgledaju toplo
  34. skladne – skladne boje ili dijelovi međusobno se dobro kombiniraju
  35. oštra – vrlo svijetla
  36. šaren – prikazuje promjenjive boje u različitim vrstama svjetla
  37. jazzy – svijetao, šaren i privlačan
  38. glasno – vrlo svijetlo na način koji ne pokazuje dobar ukus
  39. odgovaraju – s istom bojom, uzorkom ili dizajnom
  40. srednje – ni svijetle ni tamne boje
  41. mellow – meke i tople boje
  42. raznobojna – koja se sastoji od nekoliko različitih boja
  43. opalescent – čini se da uvijek blago mijenja boju
  44. pastel – koji ima blijedo meku boju
  45. prizmatična – višebojna, briljantna, svijetla
  46. psihodelične – svijetle boje i imaju velike neobične uzorke
  47. pure – čista boja je vrlo jasna i lijepa
  48. suzdržano – nije previše svijetle boje ili nije previše ukrašeno
  49. bogat – jak na ugodan način
  50. sepia – fotografije sepije su stare i crveno-smeđe su boje
  51. upadljivo – jarkih boja i atraktivno
  52. mekana – blijeda, nježna i ugodna za gledanje
  53. sombre – tamne boje, osobito sive ili crne
  54. prskanje – jarkih boja
  55. obojeno – nešto što je obojeno bojom, osjećajem ili kvalitetom sadrži malu količinu toga
  56. toniran – koji sadrži malu količinu određene boje
  57. dvobojne – dvobojne cipele ili odjeća imaju dvije boje
  58. živahan – svijetao i šaren
  59. nasilan – vrlo bistar i gotovo bolan za pogledati
  60. živopisna – živa boja je jaka i svijetla
  61. tople – tople boje imaju crvenu, narančastu ili žutu boju.
  62. vodenast – blijed

Riječi koje opisuju nedostatak boje

  1. bezbojan – dosadan ili bez boje
  2. isprekidani – niz malih mrlja ili oznaka
  3. izblijedjelo – manje svijetlo
  4. pjegavi – koji imaju mrlju ili malu mrlju boje
  5. svjetlu – nedostaje svjetlina ili zasićenje
  6. jednobojna – koja ima jednu boju
  7. monotone – sve u jednoj boji
  8. prigušene – prigušene ili omekšane boje
  9. neutralni – koji ima vrlo malo boje
  10. neprozirna – nesposobna propustiti svjetlost
  11. blijedo – nešto svijetle boje ili isprano
  12. primarna – osnovna boja
  13. rustikalno – običan jednostavan
  14. nijansirana – mala količina boje
  15. tonirano – blago obojeno
  16. proziran – koji propušta svjetlost
  17. prozirno – jasno prozirno
  18. vodenast – koji sadrži previše razrijeđene vode

Riječi koje opisuju određene boje

  1. alabaster – vrlo bijela i glatka.
  2. jantar – između smeđe i žute boje.
  3. ametist – svijetlo ljubičasta.
  4. marelica – nijansa ružičaste boje s žutom bojom
  5. avokado – s blijedozelenom bojom.
  6. pepeo – boja pepela
  7. azurno – svijetlo plavo.
  8. baby-blue – svijetloplava boja.
  9. bež – vrlo blijedosmeđe boje
  10. crna – ima najtamniju boju, poput neba noću kad nema svjetla
  11. plavo – nešto što je plavo iste je boje kao i nebo za vedrog sunčanog dana.
  12. plavkasta – slična plavoj ili blago plavoj boji
  13. kost – nijansa bijele boje izbijeljenog kostura
  14. boca zelena – vrlo tamno zelena
  15. brončana – atraktivne smeđe boje
  16. smeđa – nešto što je smeđe iste je boje kao drvo ili kava
  17. smeđe – slične smeđe ili blago smeđe boje
  18. bordo – tamnocrvena
  19. kanarinac – koji ima boju kanarinca svijetlo do umjereno žute boje
  20. karamel – svijetlo žućkasto-smeđe boje
  21. cerise – svijetle crveno-ružičaste boje
  22. kreda – čista ravna bijela
  23. ugljen – nešto što je ugljen je tamno sive boje
  24. chartreuse – svijetle zeleno-žute boje
  25. trešnja – a crvena boja zrelih trešanja
  26. cimet – svijetlo crveno-smeđe boje
  27. bordo – tamnocrvene boje
  28. kobaltno plava – nijansa plave boje obojena zelenom
  29. bakra – crveno-smeđe boje
  30. koralja – s bojom između ružičaste i narančaste
  31. krem – žućkastobijele boje
  32. grimizno – tamno ljubičasto-crvene boje
  33. Day-Glo – izuzetno svijetle žute, narančaste, ružičaste ili zelene boje
  34. golubinjasto – svijetlo sive boje
  35. dun – između smeđe i sive boje
  36. ebanovina – tamnocrne boje
  37. ecru – vrlo blijedo smeđe
  38. ljuska jaja – poput ljuske jajeta, na primjer bijelo-žute boje, nije jako sjajna ili tanka i nježna
  39. električno plava – vrlo svijetlo plava
  40. smaragdna – jarkozelene boje
  41. fawn – svijetlosmeđe boje
  42. boje mesa – boje bijele ljudske kože
  43. zlato – nešto što je zlato je boje zlata
  44. zlatne – svijetle žute boje
  45. zelena – nešto što je zeleno iste je boje kao i trava.
  46. zelenkasta – slična zelenoj ili blago zelenoj boji
  47. greige – između vrlo blijedosmeđe i sive boje
  48. siva – između crne i bijele boje (siva – američki pravopis sive)
  49. lješnjak – svijetlosmeđe i blago zelene ili zlatne boje, koristi se posebno za opisivanje nečijih očiju
  50. ledeno plava – vrlo svijetloplava boja
  51. indigo – između tamnoplave i ljubičaste boje
  52. tinte – uglavnom književno crne ili vrlo tamne boje
  53. željezo-siva – tamnosive boje
  54. bjelokost – nešto što je bjelokost je žućkasto-bijele boje
  55. jet-black – vrlo sjajna i crne boje
  56. lavanda – svijetloljubičaste boje
  57. olovna – mutna i tamnosive boje
  58. lila – blijedoljubičaste boje
  59. ljiljan-bijeli – čisto bijeli
  60. limeta-zelena – svijetle žuto-zelene boje
  61. livid – uglavnom književno tamnoljubičaste ili plavo-sive boje
  62. magenta – ljubičasto-crvene boje
  63. kestenjasta – tamnocrveno-smeđe boje
  64. ljubičasto – blijedoljubičaste boje
  65. mliječno-bijela – boja mlijeka
  66. mliječna – boja mlijeka
  67. tamnoplava – vrlo tamno plava
  68. orah-smeđa – srednje smeđe boje
  69. prljavobijela – blago žuta ili siva
  70. maslina – tamno žućkastozelene boje
  71. maslina – tamno sivo-zelene boje, poput mnogih vojnih uniformi
  72. narančasta – između crvene i žute boje
  73. narančasto – slično narančastoj ili blago narančastoj boji
  74. breskva – žućkasto ružičaste boje
  75. paun plava – tamno plavo-zelena boja
  76. grašak zelen – jarkozelene boje
  77. ružičasta – između crvene i bijele boje
  78. ružičasta – slična ružičastoj ili blago ružičastoj boji
  79. mrkocrna – potpuno crna ili tamna
  80. šljiva – između crvene i ljubičaste boje
  81. puce – između tamnosmeđe ili tamnocrvene i ljubičaste
  82. ljubičasta – između crvene i plave boje
  83. ljubičasta – slična ljubičastoj ili blago ljubičastoj boji
  84. crvena – iste boje kao i krv
  85. crvenkasta – slična crvenoj ili blago crvena
  86. ruža – tamno ružičasta boja
  87. ružičasta – ružičasta boja
  88. ružičaste boje – ružičaste boje
  89. ružičasta – ružičasta boja
  90. kraljevsko plava – duboko plava
  91. rubin – duboko crvene boje
  92. rumena – crvena boja
  93. russet – crveno-smeđe boje
  94. hrđave – crveno-smeđe boje
  95. šafran – između jarko žute i narančaste boje
  96. losos – narančasta s ružičastom bojom
  97. pješčana – blijedožute boje
  98. grimizna – jarko crvena boja
  99. morsko-zelena – zeleno-plave boje
  100. sepia – nešto što je sepia je crveno-smeđa boja
  101. šokantno ružičasta – vrlo svijetle ružičaste boje
  102. srebrna – svijetlosiva boja
  103. srebrnasta i#8211 poput srebra u boji ili izgledu
  104. nebesko-plava – boja neba za vedrog vedrog dana
  105. dimljena – svijetlosiva boja
  106. snježnobijela – vrlo bijela
  107. čađave – crne ili mračne boje
  108. čelična – čelična plava je sivo-plave boje
  109. boje slame – blijedo smeđe-žute boje
  110. tan – svijetlosmeđe boje
  111. taupe – smeđe-sive boje
  112. tawny – između žute i smeđe boje
  113. teal – između plave i zelene boje
  114. terakota – smeđe-crvene boje
  115. tirkizne – svijetle zeleno-plave boje
  116. ultramarin – vrlo svijetle plave boje
  117. umber – žute ili crvenkastosmeđe boje
  118. vermilion – jarko crvene ili crveno-narančaste boje
  119. ljubičasta a- plavo-ljubičasta boja
  120. bijelo – nešto bijelo iste je boje kao mlijeko ili snijeg
  121. bjelkaste – slične bijele ili blago bijele boje
  122. wine – nešto što je vino je tamnocrvene boje
  123. žuta a- nešto što je žuto iste je boje kao i sredina jaja
  124. žućkaste – slične žute ili blago žute boje

Vrh Savjet : Saznajte više o našim radne bilježnice i online tečajevi u našem dućan .

od Amande Patterson


Često postavljana pitanja (FAQ)

Što vaša omiljena boja govori o vama?

Imati omiljenu boju prilično je uobičajeno, većina ljudi može identificirati barem jednu boju koju više voli imati na sebi ili oko sebe. Omiljene boje mogu se promijeniti s vremenom ili mogu ostati tvrdoglavo postojane i trajati tijekom cijelog života osobe. Imati omiljenu boju može također reći nešto o individualnoj osobnosti ili temperamentu jer mnoge različite boje imaju određena značenja i asocijacije, neki su ljudi tvrdili da omiljene boje govore nešto o osobi koja ih polaže. Na primjer, ako je vaša omiljena boja plava, vjerojatno ste vrlo mirni i ne temperamentni. Međutim, ako je vaša omiljena boja crvena, vjerojatno ste ispunjeni strašću i možete se zagrijati u svakom trenutku. Ako uživate u smeđoj boji, to može značiti da ste jaki ili da se ponekad osjećate usamljeno. Većina ljudi ima omiljenu boju i mnogi ljudi su strastveni prema svojoj.

Najčešće povezanosti između boja i osobina su sljedeće: značenje boje za crvenu je strast i samopouzdanje, žuta za dobrotu i sreću, plava za vjernost i zrelost, zelena za čvrstinu i mir, crna za daljinu i hladna glava, bijela za mladost i nevinost, a ljubičasta za bogatstvo ili osjećaj veličine. Sviđajući se svakoj od ovih boja i smišljajući je kao svoju omiljenu, moglo bi ukazivati ​​na prisutnost ovih osobina u vama & mdash Slijedom načela & ldquolike privlačnosti poput & rdquo & mdashor moglo bi se ukazati na želju da imate više tih osobina u svom životu i osobnosti. Ono što vaša omiljena boja govori o vama ovisit će o razlogu vaše ljubavi prema boji.

Govori li vaša omiljena boja nešto o vama?

Postoje različite vrste teorije boja i značenja boja koje identificiraju različite tipove osobnosti povezane s određenim omiljenim bojama, uključujući psihologiju boje. Ti se tipovi obično oslanjaju na percepcije i emocije koje izazivaju boje i tvrde da odabir boje sugerira vezu osobe s odgovorima koje boja obično izaziva. Iako postoji određena rasprava o tome jesu li te mjere individualne i rsquos osobnosti čvrsto ukorijenjene u znanosti ili psihološkom istraživanju (iako polje psihologije boja zasigurno ima različit stav o toj temi), mnogi anegdotski dokazi potvrđuju vjerojatnost omiljena boja & ldquosay & rdquo nešto o osobi koja to tvrdi. Na primjer, smeđa boja ukazuje na zemljanu, čvrstu osobnost, dok narančasta boja može ukazivati ​​na to da je osoba istodobno vatrena i prijateljska. Ako je vaša omiljena boja siva, možda biste favorizirali melankoliju i zadržali je za sebe, a ako je vaša omiljena boja bijela, možda biste više voljeli da stvari budu uredne i uredne. Međutim, ako netko odabere jednu od ovih boja kao svoju omiljenu boju, ove stvari možda nisu istinite o osobi koja ih je odabrala. Značenje boje ne mora se prevesti u osobu koja ima sklonost, ali to ne čini značenje neistinitim.

Zašto imamo omiljenu boju?

Omiljene boje dio su individualne ličnosti iz više razloga, od kojih su najčešći želja za izražavanjem i sklonost određenim vizualnim znakovima. Iako se mnoge omiljene boje ljudi mijenjaju tijekom života, razlozi za te favorite često ostaju postojani, naime, osjećaj ugode proizašao iz određene boje ili lijepa sjećanja povezana s određenom bojom. Na primjer, ako je vaša omiljena boja narančasta, možda ćete u ljeto ili proljeće imati lijepe uspomene. Ili, nastojte li uvijek biti sretni, bez obzira na prepreke u životu, pa volite narančastu ili žutu boju.

Kad se koriste kao oblik izražavanja, ljudi često imaju omiljene boje kako bi drugima prenijeli nešto o sebi. Na primjer, ako je omiljena boja zelena ili smeđa, možda ćete htjeti prenijeti svoj afinitet prema zemljanim tonovima, toplini i uzemljenju. Ako volite crvenu boju, možda želite reći da ste strastveni, živahni i živi. Plava se često koristi za označavanje lojalnosti i postojanosti, dok bijela i crna često odaju osjećaj privatnosti i autonomije. Kad je vaša omiljena boja siva, možda se nećete moći odlučiti između bijele i crne.

Boje također mogu podržati ili pobuditi sjećanja. Netko bi svoju omiljenu boju mogao prepoznati kao ljubičastu, na primjer, nakon lijepih sjećanja na biljke bake i rsquosa lavande. Dragocjeni dar, poput kamiona s igračkama, također bi mogao utjecati na omiljene boje i u odrasloj dobi. Odmor za pamćenje, značajan gubitak ili velika promjena mogu se pretvoriti u promjene u omiljenoj boji. Psihologija boje mogla bi sugerirati da određene boje sjećanjima i iskustvima daju određena značenja. Na primjer, plava boja može vas natjerati da pomislite na oblačno nebo, a smeđa boja može vas podsjetiti na čokoladu. Ove vas stvari mogu podsjetiti na jednostavnija vremena ili stvari koje vas čine sretnima, zbog čega postaju vaša omiljena boja. Ne postoji način da se zaključi zašto se netko osjeća bliže jednoj boji u odnosu na druge, iako postoje istraživanja koja bi mogla pomoći u razumijevanju omiljenih preferencija boja i kako se značenje boje može podudarati s tim stvarima.

& ldquoŠto vaša omiljena boja govori o vama & rdquo često je niz pitanja kada ljudi preferiraju crvenu. Crvena boja često se koristi za označavanje strasti, života i ljubavi. Prepoznavanje crvene kao vaše omiljene boje može ukazivati ​​na to da je vaša osobnost ispunjena romantikom, strašću, odlučnošću i živošću. Malo ljudi bira crvenu boju kao svoju omiljenu boju, a da ne posjeduju određeni stupanj ovih osobina. Crvena boja također se često povezuje s bijesom i moći, a one bi mogle doći u obzir. Ono što vaša omiljena boja govori o vama razlikuje se od boje do boje, iz dana u dan, pa čak i od osobe do osobe ono što jedna osoba vidi kao lijepu, živu boju, druga može jednako lako vidjeti kao agresivnu ili neugodnu nijansu.

Testovi osobnosti su brojni i jako se razlikuju u dizajnu. Neki testovi osobnosti u boji stvoreni su kao zabavna veza na koju se može kliknuti i koja korisnicima pruža mali, neznanstven (ali zasigurno zanimljiv) osvrt na osobnost povezanu s određenom bojom i značenjem boja, neki testovi osobnosti u boji identificiraju osobnosti na temelju jezgre skupina od četiri boje, a drugi se oslanjaju na teoriju boja i psihologiju boja kako bi oblikovali predodžbu o osobinama ličnosti i ponašanju. Osobine povezane s određenim bojama (tj. Crvena za strast, plava za vjernost, žuta za ljubaznost) mogu se koristiti za određivanje boje koje je osobnosti osobe ili colors boje ili makeup stvarne šminke mogu se koristiti za identifikaciju crta ličnosti (tj. Pojedinca čija je osobnost zelena je osoba koja kombinira crte žute i plave osobnosti).

Određivanje boje vaše osobnosti i rsquosa može uključivati ​​uzimanje internetskih ili tiskanih procjena, procjenu vaših prednosti, slabosti, sviđanja i nesviđanja, ili može uključivati ​​čitanje opisa boja i utvrđivanje koji od opisa najbolje odgovara vašim osobinama i sklonostima. Ako se želi klinička procjena osobnosti i boje, stručnjak za mentalno zdravlje može provesti temeljitiju i objektivniju studiju. Psihologija boja samo je jedno polje studija koje bi moglo pomoći klijentima u određivanju uloge koje boje igraju u njihovom životu i zašto su odabrali svoju omiljenu boju. Ljudi koji se bave psihologijom boje mogu se usredotočiti na istraživanje ili se mogu usredotočiti na praktičnu primjenu teorije boja, značenja boje i psihologije boja u korist svojih pacijenata.

Mnogi se ljudi slažu da je njihova omiljena boja ljubičasta. Ljubičasta boja dugo se povezivala s bogatstvom i kraljevskom obitelji, a nosili su je pojedinci na mjestima moći. Boja je također povezana s bogatom maštom, misterijom i popustljivošću. Voljeti ljubičastu boju može ukazivati ​​na zanimanje za sve ove stvari, njihovu utjehu ili ljubav prema njima: čak i u nedostatku stvarnih tantijema, ljubičasta boja može ukazivati ​​na to da volite fine stvari u životu i da imate visok stupanj samopoštovanja. Voljeti ljubičasto također može ukazivati ​​na to da volite zadržati element misterije u svom životu, te uvažavanje dubine osjećaja i misli.

Većina boja povezana je s određenim značenjem. Iako ta značenja nisu konkretna i uvelike se razlikuju ovisno o kulturi, podrijetlu, naslijeđu, pa čak i teoriji ili praksi psihologije boja, postoji mnogo značenja boja koja su se stalno povezivala s određenim bojama, a lako ih prepoznaju mnogi odrasli i djeca, a da svi nisu naučeni. To može uključivati ​​crvenu boju koja znači strast ili ljutnju, zelenu koja znači zavist, žutu koja označava ljubaznost ili ljubaznost, ljubičastu koja znači kraljevsku ili bogatstvo, bijelu boju koja znači čistoću ili mladost i crnu boju koja označava udaljenost ili smrt. Iako sve ove boje imaju brojna značenja povezana s njima, ovo su neke od uobičajenih osobina ili tema koje su povezane sa svakom od njih. Psihologija boje tvrdi da je uloga boje daleko veća nego što većina ljudi shvaća, a boja može odigrati snažnu ulogu u zdravlju i blagostanju.

Plava boja često se povezuje s mirom, odanošću, pa čak i temperamentom. Plava se često koristi u terapijskim i bolničkim klinikama kao zidna boja ili u umjetničkim djelima, jer se kaže da plava djeluje umirujuće na ljude, pa je čak povezana i sa smanjenjem boli. Although the color blue is often linked to little boys&rsquo births, this link is relatively novel, and does not imply personality traits or characteristics. If your favorite color is blue, the meanings of blue might feel particularly interesting or impactful. Moreover, if your favorite color is blue, you may be a calm and laid-back person, or you may like how the color blue causes you to stay calmer than other colors.

Color-specific personalities are a part of a color personality typing system called The True Colors methodology. Within this methodology, a blue color personality is one linked to compassion, consideration, cooperation, and empathy. Color blue personalities are seen as the most social of the personality types, and are frequently the go-to people for interpersonal interactions. If your personality color is blue, you typically focus your energy on creating and maintaining relationships, forging connections, and creating cooperative opportunities. In day-to-day life, this usually means craving connection and companionship, while in business, blue personalities frequently seek out opportunities that allow them to create partnerships and work closely with others. To see what your color personality is, consider taking a color personality test to see your color!

Favorite food is any food item that consistently or persistently appeals to an individual. Although there are certainly plenty of dishes people enjoy, and partake of on a regular basis, a favorite food is frequently a food that either does not &ldquoget old,&rdquo or grow unappetizing despite continual consumption, or a food that is tied to fond memories. Some people enjoy their favorite foods on a daily basis (eating cereal every day for breakfast, for instance), while others savor their favorite foods and eat them only on special occasions, such as a birthday or anniversary. The frequency with which a favorite food is consumed differs widely from person to person.

Favorites function as a means of expressing individual tastes and personalities. They are rooted in many different things, and can extend from childhood experiences or feelings, or can be newly discovered in adulthood. Favorites can be identified in virtually every aspect of life: a favorite style of house, a favorite vacation spot, a favorite time of day, a favorite childhood friend, a favorite animal, a favorite book, or favorite color&mdashthe options are virtually limitless. Favorites act as reminders of cherished memories, and provide a way for people to keep their memories close. Favorites also serve as ways to connect with others and identify niches in which you fit nicely, whether those niches are found in hobbies, families, or the workplace. Favorites also function as way to express your individuality, allowing people to express their tastes and preferences. Color psychology delves into color meaning and personal expressions using colors to reach conclusions about color&rsquos role in personality and daily life, as well as therapeutic applications of color.

If your favorite color is blue, you are likely a very comforting person to be around. The color blue is typically associated with loyalty, comfort, and calm, and is a common favorite color. Many people are drawn to the color blue because of its effects on their mental state, and the associations it usually carries. Various shades of blue are found in everyday life: police emblems are often emblazoned with blue, countless national and state flags are decorated with the color blue, and blue is frequently featured in marketing and logos. Although it frequently brings up images of baby showers intended for welcoming males into the world, blue has numerous long-held associations, most of them related to maturity, compassion, and peace. If your favorite color is blue, it could indicate the desire for or presence of peace, comfort, and calm.

The color that is commonly viewed as the most attractive color to men is the color red. One study found that men consistently rated women who wore the color red as more attractive than their counterparts wearing other colors, even when objective measures of attractiveness were found among the women wearing colors such as blue or green. A similar study found that women also respond well to the opposite sex wearing the color red&mdashor even being framed by red. The color red was associated with power, sexual attractiveness, and confidence, and studies have consistently suggested the power of red as a force of attraction.

In psychology, red is often associated with determination, strength, and will. This has been viewed through the lens of romance and relationships, linking the color red to libido, romance, and passion, as well as in business, linking red to confidence, assertiveness, and leadership. Red can also be tied to aggression and anger, and some studies have suggested that red can be used to raise an individual&rsquos heart rate. If this is your favorite color, these are things you should pay attention to.

The four personality colors are red, the color green, blue, and yellow. Each color corresponds to a particular personality type, each color personality type focusing on a dominant set of traits. Red, for instance, is often seen in people who are natural leaders, who behave decisively and confidently, and function best while executing plans. Red is typically associated with dominant personalities, who do not do well in subordinate or follower roles.

Green personality types are characterized by their ability to weather any storms with quiet confidence and strength. Although greens are typically seen as being confident, they are often not overt leaders instead, they thrive on cooperation and collaboration, and prefer working situations and relationships in which trust and dependability are at the forefront. The color green is frequently seen as a peacemaker and change maker.

Blue personality types are detail-oriented, and always seem to be going. Like the water blue is often associated with, blue personality types are seen as careful, clever, and consistent, always working toward a goal or pursuit. This can be done in leadership roles, but can also be done in the role of subordinate&mdashprovided that order and consistency are a part of the equation. Persistence is most frequently brought to mind when an individual&rsquos personality color is blue.

Yellow personality types are usually associated with the sun: bright, friendly, and socially minded, yellows can be leaders or followers, but will always flock to the areas that involve working with others and being in the thick of people. Yellows often use humor and light-hearted conversation to maintain connections and do well in relationships and workplace situations involving a great deal of communication, teamwork, and close-knit groups.

Seeing your aura is typically achieved through the use of a professional, and may be done through a reading, wherein your aura is &ldquoread&rdquo via an in-person interaction. Auras may also be seen and evaluated through aura photography, which allows people to view their aura in a more consistent and tangible way. Barring these options, some sources suggest that it may be possible to see your aura yourself, over time, though they caution that not everyone is able to see the aura, or energy, that they emit. To do this, you may rub your hands together to gather warmth and energy, and slowly pull them apart. Viewing the space between your hands, you may be able to see a hint of a color or light. That color or light is said to be the shade of your aura.

Finding out your soul mark color is similar to other small, online personality tests, with subjective results. These types of quizzes will focus on characteristics you possess, such as whether you are an introvert or extrovert, what types of animals you like, and what traits you exhibit in day to day life. The colors included in soul mark quizzes typically involve standard primary colors, in addition to purple, indigo, gold, orange, green, pink, and white.

Although online personality tests are a dime a dozen, these often do not provide legitimate insight into an individual&rsquos personality, and are more often used as a source of entertainment or fun. Learning about your personality is more effective using tried and true methods of personality assessment, including assessments such as the Myers-Briggs personality assessment (which contains 16 possible personality types), or the Enneagram assessment (which possesses 9 different personality types).

Identifying your personality can also involve more introspection, without the use of a personality assessment. Journaling is one of the most effective ways to begin examining and trying to understand your personality. Identifying how you respond to stress, what makes you feel passionate and excited, and what you want from life are all simple, straightforward ways to begin evaluating your personality, and can help you ascertain your strengths and weaknesses.

Identifying your personality can also be done with a counselor or therapist, as these individuals are often equipped with the assessment tools necessary to conduct a professional evaluation. Working with a therapist, counselor, or other personality professional can help you not only discern your personality characteristics or type, but can also help you identify any areas within that personality type that may need strengthening or other assistance, and how color psychology can help you express your individuality.

Purple has most often been associated with royalty and wealth, and this persists in color psychology purple is an interesting color, because it unites two seemingly disparate entities. Red and blue make purple, and while red is usually associated with power, passion, and anger, blue is often associated with calm, precision, and kindness. Purple, as the combination of the two, is said to perfectly balance the strengths and weaknesses of blue and red. If your favorite color is purple, it could indicate a preference for spirituality and creativity, as these characteristics are frequently associated with the color. Purple has a long history of association with religion and spirituality, and has been used in symbolism for both.

Seeing colors and lights when your eyes are closed is often attributed to the light seen through your eyelids, but this is not actually the case the light seen when eyes are closed are lights from within the actual structure of the eye. These lights often vary in color, and can be the color purple, but can also be white, blue, or a host of other colors. The source of these lights is thought to be the retinal system itself, which is made up of rods and cells that take in visual information and process it. When eyes are closed&mdashor when eyes have been rubbed, your head has been struck, and more&mdashthese lights make themselves known, and the result is often a show of both light and shape.

Happiness is consistently associated with the color yellow. This is often attributed to the influence of the sun the sun is essential to maintain energy levels and healthy mental functioning, as the sun plays a significant role in the production of vitamin D, which is essential to the body&rsquos ability to function optimally&mdashincluding pursuing and maintaining optimal mental health. Yellow is also associated with having a friendly nature, warmth, and summer, which can all significantly improve an individual&rsquos mood. Although the color pink and the color orange may also be associated with happiness, yellow is overwhelmingly the color chosen as a representation of happiness.

There are two colors that have been linked to anxiety: dark blue and the color gray. Dark blue, in one study, was chosen by a large number of individuals who experienced either anxiety or depression as their favorite color, which seemed to suggest a link between darker shades of blue and the presence of anxiety or depressive disorders. This same study asked participants to identify which color they felt best represented their mental state in the midst of anxiety or depression, and participants overwhelmingly identified gray as the color that signified anxiety and depression.

The word &ldquocolor&rdquo is a noun or an adjective, depending on its usage. In the sentence &ldquoShe wore the color well,&rdquo &ldquocolor&rdquo is a noun. In the sentence, &ldquoTherese wore the red-colored shoes to the dance,&rdquo however, the word &ldquocolored&rdquo is an adjective, describing the noun &ldquoshoes.&rdquo The usage of the word will determine whether or not it is a noun.

Blue has come to be associated with sadness in psychology, language, and popular media. The phrase &ldquofeeling blue,&rdquo for instance, is specifically designed to impart a feeling of sadness, depression, or longing. The color gray has also been associated with sadness, as the word &ldquodreary&rdquo often accompanies description of gray, cloudy, or overcast days. If your favorite color is gray, it could mean that you are frequently sad, or you find beauty in sadness. This isn&rsquot usually the case if your favorite color is blue, however.

The bible uses the color blue over 50 times in the Old Testament of the Bible, most of these references pertaining in some way to God. As a result, blue is often associated with God in religious beliefs and religious teachings, in addition to its association with the sky and the sea&mdashtwo features that are frequently mentioned within the Bible&rsquos texts. Blue also comes into play in the form of gemstones sapphires are frequently featured in the bible, and sapphires are known for their beautiful blue coloring. Although the Bible does not outright suggest a particular color meaning of blue, its association with God suggests that the color is highly regarded and would be interpreted as being close to God.

Blue is a rich and diverse color, with a wide variety of color meaning attached to it. Although many colors hone in on a similar theme (red pairs with passion, anger, and confidence, for instance), blue is in the unique position of having some complementary traits and some seemingly oppositional traits. This may be why blue is the most popular &ldquofavorite color.&rdquo Blue is frequently associated with feelings of calm and a sense of stability or trust. Blue is often noted for its links to steadfastness, chivalry, and maturity. Blue is also linked to feelings of sadness, depression, or overwhelm, most frequently seen in its use to describe feeling sad (&ldquofeeling blue&rdquo or &ldquohaving the baby blues&rdquo). Blue is unique for its ability to transcend multiple meanings and provide comfort and a sense of discomfort at the same time. So, if your favorite color is blue, maybe you like some diversity in your life or are very in touch with your true emotions.

Blue is often seen as a neutral color, primarily because of its ability to go well with virtually anything&mdasheven other shades of the same color. Sky blue pairs well with navy blue and other dark blue hues. Other beautiful pairing colors are black color, the color orange, gray, white, red, brown, and beige. All of these colors can pair well together to create a cohesive outfit, an aesthetically pleasing room, or an inviting bedspread. Sky blue is a versatile, well-loved color that can be used in a wide range of applications.

If your favorite color is blue, you may be called a caeruleaphile. This comes from the combination of the prefix &ldquocaerule&rdquo and the suffix &ldquophile,&rdquo which is a Greek word meaning &ldquoto love.&rdquo The prefix is Latin, and simply means &ldquoblue.&rdquo A caeruleaphile, then, is an individual who loves the color blue, whether that love is due to the color meaning or the aesthetic appearance of the hue.

The Color Code is a color personality assessment that assigns individuals a color&mdasheither blue, red, yellow, or white. These colors all correspond to a particular set of traits or behaviors. In the Color Code system, if your color is blue, your personality is associated with thoughtful, loyal, opinionated, sincere, and self-righteous traits. Although this differs somewhat with the typical color meaning of blue as a color of maturity and calm, it does coincide with the typical depiction of blue as a color indicative of loyalty and kindness.

Blue is thought to have a calming effect on individuals&rsquo mood. Although research has consistently found this to be the case, it is less clear how long this boost in mood lasts, and whether it continues to work in the long-term. Nevertheless, many hospitals, fitness centers, therapy clinics, and food services areas have painted their walls an understated blue, in an effort to capitalize on the sense of calm, security, and safety that blue exudes. You may enjoy this if blue is your favorite color.

National Geographic identified cereal grains and tubers as the most commonly eaten foods worldwide. Rice, corn, and wheat are the most popular cereal grains eaten worldwide, and can be seen in a variety of applications. The most popular tubers worldwide include potatoes, cassava, and yams. These foods are typically considered the most eaten and the most prolific foods because they have a large number of nutrients in them, and are frequently inexpensive, easy to harvest, easy to grow, and easy to distribute.

The foods identified as America&rsquos favorite foods are typically those identified as part of the Standard American Diet (SAD). These foods are frequently called &ldquohyperpalatable&rdquo foods, or foods with taste profiles and flavors that border on addictive. Hyperpalatable foods include pizza, hamburgers, hot dogs, and fried foods, such as fried chicken, but can include any food item that is high in sugars, fats, or processed ingredients. Americans consistently rate pizza as their ideal food, though steak and tacos (in addition to hamburgers) often come in as a close second.

The most popular food in the United States today is pizza. Although the precise iteration of pizza varies (some prefer olives, some prefer pepperoni, and some prefer only cheese), many Americans agree that pizza is the one food item that be eaten almost daily without tiring of eating it.

Red has been consistently linked to men and attraction. Red is said to the color of confidence and romance, and men may take notice of a woman in red before they take notice of a woman in more muted colors. Red also has a history of being associated with passion and sensuality, two things that may help men visualize a partner as their own. Although men may also find other colors attractive&mdasha woman in a classic &ldquoLBD&rdquo or little black dress, for example, many psychological studies have pointed to the color red as the primarily color responsible for appealing to men.

The color red has long been linked to attraction between men and their perspective partners. The color meaning of red is usually associated with passion and confidence, both of which are seen as impressive and exciting to a potential mate. White has often also enjoyed a place in the annals of popular color preferences for males, for its attachment to purity or innocence&mdashtwo traits that have long been considered desirable in a romantic partner. Finally, black has also been associated with attraction in both sexes, as black has been associated with mystery and intrigue, both things that may make a partner (or potential partner) more appealing.

The color yellow is usually regarded as the friendliest color, both on its own, and in conjunction with yellow items found in nature. The bright yellow center of daises, the rich, deep yellow of sunflowers, and the persistent, cheerful yellow of the sun are all frequently used to point back to the cheery, friendly nature of the color yellow. The color yellow has also been associated with friendship, and a yellow rose is actually an enduring symbol of friendship. Although green and blue are both close contenders, the color meaning of yellow is most often seen as cheerful, welcoming, and friendly. If your favorite color is yellow, it could mean that you are outgoing, friendly, and happy. Moreover, when your favorite color is yellow, this may mean that you are as cheerful as the color.


Ever wonder why fluorescent colours look so bright? It is all due to energy, as explained in the article Light – colour and fluorescence.

Experiment with mixing the primary colours of lights and paints using these simulations on the Causes of color website.

Find out about how dogs do have some colour vision and how they see the world in this article from Live Science.

Download this PDF from The Physics Teacher to find out how to make a colour light mixer using LEDs and a ping-pong ball.

Read this tutorial about Human perception, Spatial awareness and Illusions on Biology Online to learn about human perception.


How the Brain Perceives Colors?

Color vision is the ability to distinguish different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Color vision relies on a brain perception mechanism that treats light with different wavelengths as different visual stimuli (e.g., colors). Usual color insensitive photoreceptors (the rods in human eyes) only react to the presence or absence of light and do not distinguish between specific wavelengths.

We can argue that colors are not real—they are “synthesized” by our brain to distinguish light with different wavelengths. While rods give us the ability to detect the presence and intensity of light (and thus allow our brain to construct the picture of the world around us), specific detection of different wavelengths through independent channels gives our view of the world additional high resolution. For instance, red and green colors look like near identical shades of grey in black and white photos.

An animal with black and white vision alone won’t be able to make a distinction between, let’s say, a green and red apple, and won’t know which one tastes better before trying them both based on color. Evolutionary biologists believe that human ancestors developed color vision to facilitate the identification of ripe fruits, which would obviously provide an advantage in the competitive natural world.

Why certain wavelengths are paired with certain colors remains a mystery. Technically, color is an illusion created by our brain. Therefore, it is not clear if other animals see colors the same way we see them. It is likely that, due to shared evolutionary history, other vertebrates see the world colored similarly to how we see it. But color vision is quite common across the vast animal kingdom: insects, arachnids, and cephalopods are able to distinguish colors.

What kind of colors do these animals see?

Human color vision relies on three photoreceptors that detect primary colors—red, green, and blue. However, some people lack red photoreceptors (they are “bichromates”) or have an additional photoreceptor that detects somewhere between red and green colors (“tetrachromates”). Obviously, having only 3 photoreceptors doesn’t limit our ability to distinguish other colors.

Each photoreceptor can absorb a rather broad range of wavelengths of light. To distinguish a specific color, the brain compares and quantitatively analyses the data from all three photoreceptors. And our brain does this remarkably successfully—some research indicates that we can distinguish colors that correspond to wavelength differences of just 1 nanometer.

This scheme works in largely the same way in most higher vertebrate animals that have color vision. Although the ability to distinguish between specific shades varies significantly between the species, with humans having one of the best color distinguishing abilities.

However, invertebrates that have developed color vision (and vision in general) completely independently from us demonstrate remarkably different approaches to color detection and processing. These animals can have a exceptionally large number of color receptors. The mantis shrimp, for instance, has 12 different types of photoreceptors. The common bluebottle butterfly has even more—15 receptors.

Does it mean that these animals can see additional colors unimaginable to us? Perhaps yes. Some of their photoreceptors operate in a rather narrow region of light spectrum. For instance, they can have 4-5 photoreceptors sensitive in the green region of the visual spectrum. This means that for these animals the different shades of green may appear as different as blue and red colors appear to our eyes! Again, the evolutionary advantages of such adaptations are obvious for an animal living among the trees and grasses where most objects, as we see them, are colored in various shades of green.

Researchers tried to test if a more complicated set of visual receptors provide any advantages for animals when it comes to the distinguishing between main colors. The findings show that this is not necessarily the case, at least not for the mantis shrimp. Despite the impressive array of receptors detecting light in a much broader part of the electromagnetic spectrum compared to humans, the shrimp’s ability to distinguish between colors that great in comparison to us. However, they determine the colors fast. This is probably more important for practical purposes, as mantis shrimps are predators. A large number of photoreceptors allows for their quick activation at specific wavelengths of light and thus communicate directly to the brain what specific wavelength was detected. In comparison, humans have to assess and quantify the signals from all three photoreceptors to decide on a specific color. This requires more time and energy.

Apart from employing a different number of photoreceptors to sense light of specific wavelengths, some animals can detect light that we humans are completely unable to see. For example, many birds and insects can see in the UV part of the spectrum. Bumblebees, for instance, have three photoreceptors absorbing in the UV, blue, and green regions of the spectrum. This makes them trichromates, like humans, but with the spectral sensitivity shifted to the blue end of the spectrum. The ability to detect UV light explains why some flowers have patterns visible only in this part of the spectrum. These patterns attract pollinating insects, which have an ability to see in this spectral region.

A number of animals can detect infrared light (the long wavelength radiation) emitted by heated objects and bodies. This ability significantly facilitates hunting for snakes that are usually looking for small warm-blooded prey. Seeing them through IR detecting receptors is, thus, a great tool for slow-moving reptiles. The photoreceptors sensitive to IR radiation in snakes are located not in their eye but in “pit organs” located between the eyes and nostrils. The result is still the same: snakes can color objects according to their surface temperature.

As this brief article shows, we humans can see and analyze only a small portion of the visual information available to other creatures. Next time you see a humble fly, think about how different it perceives the same things you are both looking at!

Skorupski P, Chittka L (2010) Photoreceptor Spectral Sensitivity in the Bumblebee, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS ONE 5(8): e12049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012049

Thoen HH, How MJ, Chiou TH, Marshall J. (2014) A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp. Science 343(6169):411-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1245824

Chen P-J, Awata H, Matsushita A, Yang E-C and Arikawa K (2016) Extreme Spectral Richness in the Eye of the Common Bluebottle Butterfly, Graphium sarpedon. Ispred. Ecol. Evol. 4:18. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2016.00018

Arikawa, K., Iwanaga, T., Wakakuwa, M., & Kinoshita, M. (2017) Unique Temporal Expression of Triplicated Long-Wavelength Opsins in Developing Butterfly Eyes. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 11, 96. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2017.00096


Color Psychology Meaning

How exactly does the eyes and the brain interpret and process different colors? How we see and interpret color is probably something that you have never really thought about before, we all take it for granted however it’s actually a very interesting and complex process.

The process of seeing color

Light enters our retina, the light is absorbed by the photoreceptor cells which converts light to electrochemical signals. There are two types of photoreceptor cells, we have Rods and Cones. Rods are situated on the outside of the retina and help us to see better at night, and they are also responsible for our peripheral vision.

The cone cells are more in the center of the retina and allow for more focused vision, for example viewing details and reading. Cones are also responsible for us being able to see different colors.

How cone cells help with seeing color

Every color that exists is made up of a combination of the three main primary colors of light. These are, Red, Green and Blue (RGB). The reason why these three colors are the primary colors is because they are actually the only three colors that we can detect.

We have three types of cones that detect wavelengths, these wavelengths are Long – Red, Middle – Green, Short – Blue.

Warm & Cool Colors

Colors can be separated into two main types, warm and cool colors. Warm colors are red, yellow and orange. Cool colors are blue and green. Our eyes can detect more warm colors than cool colors, this is because the majority of the cones in our retinas are designed to detect warm colors. The difference is about 60 percent are warm color detecting cones, and 40 percent for detecting cool colors.

Objects Reflex Color

A study conducted by Isaac Newton discovered that an object itself either absorbs or reflects color. White is a combination of all colors, because it reflects all colors. When you combine all the colors of the spectrum in light, it creates white. Black objects absorb all colors and doesn’t reflect any wavelengths/colors, so it’s the absence of any color reflected, this creates black. So a blue object is reflecting blue and absorbing all other colors. You only see the reflected color or wavelength.

Daltonizam

Color blindness happens when there is a problem with one or more of the cone pigments which detect the different color wavelengths. The type of color blindness can range from mild to severe, complete or total color blindness does exist however it is very rare.

Men are more prone to suffering with some sort of color blindness. Around 7 percent of men compared to only around 1 percent of women have trouble differentiating between and seeing different colors.

How the brain deals with this information?

When the information reaches the brain it is separated into different pathways. The visual information transfers to retinal ganglion cells and then passes to the geniculate nucleus and continues to the primary visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is the area of the brain that allows you to interpret and distinguish between different colors.


The Color Black

The color black relates to the hidden, the secretive and the unknown, and as a result it creates an air of mystery. It keeps things bottled up inside, hidden from the world.

In color psychology this color gives protection from external emotional stress.

It creates a barrier between itself and the outside world, providing comfort while protecting its emotions and feelings, and hiding its vulnerabilities, insecurities and lack of self confidence.

Black is the absorption of all color and the absence of light.

Black hides, while white brings to light.

What black covers, white uncovers.

We all use black at various times to hide from the world around us in one way or another. Some of us use it to hide our weight others among us use it to hide our feelings, our fears or our insecurities.

In color psychology, black means power and control, hanging on to information and things rather than giving out to others.

Black is intimidating, unfriendly and unapproachable because of the power it exudes.

It can prevent two-way communication because of its intimidation. The salesman wearing all black will make a lot of sales, but no friends! It radiates authority, but creates fear in the process.

Black implies self-control and discipline, independence and a strong will, and giving an impression of authority and power.

Black absorbs negative energy. It is useful to carry something black with you to protect you from harm and negativity when traveling or when going about your usual daily activities outside your home.

People who like black may be conventional, conservative and serious, or they may think of themselves as being sophisticated or very dignified.

The color black is often seen as a color of sophistication, as in 'the little black dress', or 'the black tie event'.

Affluent and success orientated women often choose black as it can give an impression of elegance, sophistication and confidence.

Black is often associated with sexiness and seduction, as in the temptress in sexy black lingerie creating an air of mystery and intrigue. It can also imply submission to another (including a sexual partner), similar to the priest wearing black robes in submission to God.

Black is the end, but the end always implies a new beginning. When the light appears, black becomes white, the color of new beginnings.

Teenagers and the Color Black

Teenagers  often have a psychological need to wear black during the stage of transition from the innocence of childhood to the sophistication of adulthood. It signifies the ending of one part of their life and the beginning of another, allowing them to hide from the world while they discover their own unique identity. It is important they go through this stage but a worry when it continues on into adult years if they continue to wear black to the exclusion of other colors.

Too much black can cause depression and mood swings and create a negative environment. Combined with white only, it can create an argumentative atmosphere.

It is best to use some color with black to lighten and brighten its energy.

If your favorite color is black, it will reflect in your personality! Personality color black will give you more information on this.

If you are thinking of using black in a business application, read about the  meanings of colors in business .

Positive and Negative Traits of the Color Black

Positive keywords include protection and comfort, strong, contained, formal, sophisticated, seductive, mysterious, endings & beginnings.

Negative keywords include aloof, depressing and pessimistic, secretive and withholding, conservative and serious, power & control, sadness and negativity.

The Color Black Represents

Mystery: Black is the unknown. It is secretive, keeping a lot buried inside, unwilling to show its real feelings.

Power and Control: Black is power and control of the self and others. It creates fear and intimidation.

Effects of the Color Black

Formal, dignified and sophisticated: As in the little black dress and the formal dinner suit.

Aloof: Black sets itself aside from others with its heavy and intense energy. It keeps others at arm's length.

Depressing: Black can close us to the positive aspects of life, forcing us to look at our disappointments and the black or negative aspects of our life. It can create a fear of the future.

Pessimistic: Too much black encourages us to look at the negative side of life.


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